A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened by human habitation.

To qualify as a biodiversity hotspot a region must meet two strict criteria: it must contain at least 0.5% or 1,500 species of vascular plants as endemics, and it has to have lost at least 70% of its primary vegetation.

Around the world, 36 areas qualify under this definition. These sites support nearly 60% of the world’s plant, bird, mammal, reptile, and amphibian species, with a very high share of those species as endemics. Some of these hotspots support up to 15,000 endemic plant species and some have lost up to 95% of their natural habitat.

The Biodiversity Hotspots of the World are given below:

Africa
1. Cape Floristic Kingdom – South Africa
2. Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa
3. Eastern Afro-Montane
4. Horn of Africa
5. Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands
6. Maputoland, Podoland, Albany hotspot
7. Succulent Karoo
8. The Guinean forests of Western Africa

America – North & Central
9. California Floristic Province
10. Caribbean islands hotspot
11. Modrean pine-oak wood lands – USA & Mexico
12. The Mesoamerican Forests
36. North American Coastal Plan (recently added)

America – South
13. Atlantic Forest
14. Cerrado – Brazil
15. Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests
16. Tumbes-Choco Magdalena
17. Tropical Andes (first biodiversity hotspot)

Asia – South & Central
18. Mountains of Central Asia
19. Eastern Himalaya
20. Indo-Burma – India and Myanmar
21. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka

Asia – South East & Asia-Pacific
22. East Melanesian Islands
23. New Caledonia
24. New Zealand
25. Philippines
26. Polynesia-Micronesia
27. Eastern Australian Temperate Forests
28. Southwest Australia
29. Sundaland and Nicobar Islands – India
30. Wallacea

Asia – East
31. Japan
32. Mountains of Southwest China

Asia – West
33. Caucasus
34. Iano-Anatolian

Europe
35. The Mediterranean basin and its Eastern Coastal region

Numbers above and numbers on the map do not correlate.